Gender and Stature Estimate Based on Facial Measurements: an Anthropometric Study in Southwest Iranian Population
Keywords:Facial dimensions, Gender identification, Stature identification, Anthropometry
This study was aimed to evaluate the facial dimensions and their relation with gender and stature in the Iranian southwest population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 southwest Iranian cases age 20-50 years (150 males and 150 females). Studied variables through physical anthropometry in both genders were Upper facial height (UFH), Total facial height (TFH), Facial Height (FH), Facial Width (FW), and intercanthal width (IC) using a standard sliding caliper and Collis. Regarding the sex and age of the individuals, general descriptive analysis of facial dimensions was determined. All measurements, except TFH and FH, were different between men and women (p≤ 0.01). In male subjects, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) revealed that IC (0.72 ⃰ ⃰ ), FW (0.58 ⃰ ⃰ ) and UFH (0.18 ⃰⃰ ⃰ ) parameters had a positive correlation with stature. In the female group, none of the facial parameters had a significant correlation with stature. Regarding the value of each facial diameter in discriminating male and female stature and gender, the highest discriminative value was specified to the FW (cutoff: 11.89, sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 11%) and IC (cutoff: 2.26, sensitivity: 98%, specificity: 0.04%) respectively. This study showed a significant association of some facial measurements with stature and gender in the southwest Iranian population. IC and FW had the most diagnostic value for gender and stature definition. It is shown a useful reference for the adult southwest Iranian population for facial recognition and that the subject’s sex should be considered during body identification procedures.
Baryah N, Krishan K, Kanchan T. The development and status of forensic anthropology in India: A review of the literature and future directions. Medicine, Science, and the Law. 2019; 59(1):61-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802418824834 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802418824834
Spradley MK. Metric Methods for the Biological Profile in Forensic Anthropology: Sex, Ancestry, and Stature. Acad Forensic Pathol 2016; 6(3):391-9. https://doi.org/10.23907/2016.040 DOI: https://doi.org/10.23907/2016.040
Ubelaker DH, Shamlou A, Kunkle A. Contributions of forensic anthropology to positive identification: a critical review. Forensic Sciences Research. 2019; 4(1): 45-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2018.1523704 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2018.1523704
Soltani S, Aghabiklooei A, Ameri M, Memarian A, Nikanzad A. Gender Identification Based on the Parameters of the Sternum Bone in the Cadavers. IJMTFM. 2020; 10(1):26740. https://doi.org/10.32598/ijmtfm.v10i1.26740 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32598/ijmtfm.v10i1.26740
Krishan K, Chatterjee PM, Kanchan T et al. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework. Forensic Sci Inter. 2016; 261:165.e1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.02.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.02.007
Pinherio J. Introduction to Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Chapter 2, In Forensic Anthropology and Medicine: Complementary Sciences From Recovery to Cause of Death, Ed. by S. Schmitt, E. Cunha and J. Pinherio, Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ. 2006; 13-37.
Khursheed Alam M, Mohd Noor NF and Tay Hui Wen. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance. Plos one. 2015; 10(11): 1-47. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142914 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142914
Kakadiaris IA, Passalis G, Toderisi G. Three-Dimensional Face Recognition in the Presence of Facial Expressions: An Annotated Deformable Model Approach. 2007; 29(4):640-9. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2007.1017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2007.1017
Navaei F, Gaffari N, Mojaverrostami S, Dodongeh M, Nemati M, Hassanzadeh GR. Stature estimation from facial measurements in medical students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences: An Iranian population. Iraq Med J 2018; 3(2):68-71.
Virdi SS, Wertheim D and Naini FB. Normative anthropometry and proportions of the Kenyan African face and comparative anthropometry in relation to African Americans and North American Whites. Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2019; 41(9):1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40902-019-0191-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40902-019-0191-7
Moshkdanian GH, Mahaki Zadeh S, Moghani Ghoroghi F, Mokhtari T, Hassanzadeh GR. Estimation of Stature from the Anthropometric Measurement of Lower Limb in Iranian Adults. Anatomical Sci J 2014; 11(3):149-54.
Williams PL, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, Dyson M, Dussek JE. 2000. Gray's Anatomy: The anatomical basis of medicine and surgery. 38th edition, New York, Churchill Livingstone.
Roosenboom J, Indencleef K, Lee MK, and et al. SNPs Associated With Testosterone Levels Influence Human Facial Morphology. Front Genet. 2018; 9:497. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00497 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00497
Richmond S, Howe LJ, Lewis S, Stergiakouli E and Zhurov A. Facial Genetics: A Brief Overview. Front Genet. 2018; 23(9):1-21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00462 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00462
Abbas H, Hicks Y, Marshall D, Zhurov AI and Richmond SA. 3D morphometric perspective for facial gender analysis and classification using geodesic path curvature features. Comput Vis Media. 2018; 4:17-31 https://doi.org/10.1007/s41095-017-0097-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41095-017-0097-1
Rahimi Jaberi KH, Kavakebian F and Mokhtari T. Nasofacial Anthropometric Study Among Students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran: A Population-Based Study. Indian J Otalaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019; 71(2):206-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-018-01578-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-018-01578-7
Omotoso DR, Oludiran OO, Sakpa CL. Nasofacial Anthropometry of Adult Bini Tribe in Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res. 2011; 14:219-21.
Franklin D, Cardini A, Flavel A, Kuliukas A. Estimation of sex from cranial measurements in a Western Australian population. Forensic Science International. 2013; 229:158.e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.03.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.03.005
Singh A, Sreedhar G, and Negi MPS. Anthropometric study using craniofacial features to determine gender in Lucknow population. J Forensic Dent Sci. 2017; 9(3):120-4.
Agnihotri AK, Kachhwaha S MSc, Googoolye K, Allock A. Estimation of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions by regression analysis in Indo-Mauritian population. J Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2011; 18:167-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2011.02.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2011.02.006
Sagar P. Nagare, Rohan Shrinivas Chaudhari, Pratik C. Parkarwar. Sex estimate in forensic identification, a review. J Forensic Dent Science. 2018; 10(2):61-6. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfo.jfds_55_17 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/jfo.jfds_55_17
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.