Significance of Reverse Side Analysis in Revealing Interpolation as Well as Relative Age of Writings – Illustration through Forensic Examination of Documents

Authors

  • Pranay Bhardwaj Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Chandigarh (Shimla unit), India
  • Mahesh Chandra Joshi Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Hyderabad, India
  • Amit Koul Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Chandigarh (Shimla unit), India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17063/bjfs10(4)y2021585-593

Keywords:

Addition, Alteration, Fluorescence, Ink, Spectral comparator

Abstract

Letters, figures or words are sometimes fraudulently added to a contract or other legal documents after it has been signed or produced. This can drastically change the intent of the document. It is more difficult to detect additions that are skillfully added to a document than erasures. It becomes the task of the document examiner to determine if the addition or alteration was made after the document was executed or these were the part and parcel of the document earlier. The forensic document experts can examine, detect and interpret the evidence of alteration by means of additions/insertions, as well as relative age of writings and spuriousness of the documents even in the absence of samples. Besides examining the different types of forgery involved in the writings/ signatures, the ink of the writings, misalignment between the letters, figures, words as well as lines, crowdedness of the writing, rhythm of the writing1, detection and analysis of indented and other accidental markings in the front as well as back side of the document under observation need to be carefully and thoroughly examined. In this study, the systematic method of identification of fraudulent nature of the document with respect to alteration by means of additions/ insertions/interpolation, as well as relative age of writings are discussed.

References

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Published

2021-10-01

How to Cite

Bhardwaj, P., Joshi, M. C., & Koul, A. (2021). Significance of Reverse Side Analysis in Revealing Interpolation as Well as Relative Age of Writings – Illustration through Forensic Examination of Documents. Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics, 10(4), 585–593. https://doi.org/10.17063/bjfs10(4)y2021585-593