Significance of Reverse Side Analysis in Revealing Interpolation as Well as Relative Age of Writings – Illustration through Forensic Examination of Documents
Keywords:Addition, Alteration, Fluorescence, Ink, Spectral comparator
Letters, figures or words are sometimes fraudulently added to a contract or other legal documents after it has been signed or produced. This can drastically change the intent of the document. It is more difficult to detect additions that are skillfully added to a document than erasures. It becomes the task of the document examiner to determine if the addition or alteration was made after the document was executed or these were the part and parcel of the document earlier. The forensic document experts can examine, detect and interpret the evidence of alteration by means of additions/insertions, as well as relative age of writings and spuriousness of the documents even in the absence of samples. Besides examining the different types of forgery involved in the writings/ signatures, the ink of the writings, misalignment between the letters, figures, words as well as lines, crowdedness of the writing, rhythm of the writing1, detection and analysis of indented and other accidental markings in the front as well as back side of the document under observation need to be carefully and thoroughly examined. In this study, the systematic method of identification of fraudulent nature of the document with respect to alteration by means of additions/ insertions/interpolation, as well as relative age of writings are discussed.
Koppenhaver KM. Forensic Document Examination – Principles and practice. 1. ed. New Delhi: Humana Press; 2007. 315p.
Kelly JS, Lindblom BS The Scientific Examination of Questioned Documents. 2. ed. New York: CRC Press; 2006. 464 p.
Ellen D. The Scientific Examination of Documents, Methods and Techniques. 3. ed. New York: CRC Press; 2005.
Harrison WR. (1981). Suspect Documents, their scientific Examination. 1. ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers; 1981. 583 p.
Osborn AS. Questioned documents. 2. ed. Albany: Boyd printing Co; 1929. 736 p.
Houck MM, Siegel JA. Fundamentals of Forensic Science. 2. ed. Academic Press (Elsevier); 2010. 680 p. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374989-5.00023-5
Vaid BA, Singh, Mohinder, Bhardwaj, Pranay, Introduction of security features on routine bank instruments to prevent frauds, CBI Bulletin, April-June- 2012, Vol. XX, Nos. 4-6.
Conway JVP. Evidential Documents. 1. ed. Springfield: Charles C Thomas; 1978. 267 p.
Hilton O, Strauss S. Scientific Examination of Questioned Documents. Revised edition. CRC Press. 1992. 448 p.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Brazilian Journal of Forensic Sciences, Medical Law and Bioethics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.